3 Need to Know Pearls – Gleaned from Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association (JAAHA) July/August 2016RPK Tramplin
Various drugs were discussed in the July/August 2016 issue of JAAHA concerning the treatment of several different ailments. JAAHA discussed toad intoxication in dogs by rhinella marina as well as hypercalcemia in dogs with chronic ingestion of maxacalcitol ointment. Another condition discussed was IV lipid emulsion therapy for bromethalin toxicity in canines.
Toad Poison in Dogs
Toad intoxication in canines by rhinella marina can cause fatality without early and appropriate treatment. The most important step in decontamination is oral lavage to remove the toad secretions from the oral cavity. Oral lavage should be performed as soon as exposure has been witnessed – this reduces complications significantly. Antiemetic therapy includes dolasetron, ondansetron, and potentially maropitant. However, the effectiveness has not been evaluated by the proper authorities, so use caution when prescribing treatment. Benzodiazepines can be used to control any seizure activity and oxygen may be required for significant respiratory or ventilatory compromise.Watch Full Movie Online Streaming Online and Download
It is important to treat electrolyte imbalances and acid-based disorders as well as any apparent cardiovascular issues. Antiarrhythmics have shown to be the most effective treatment for cardiovascular abnormalities in animals suffering from toad intoxication.
Toxic Cream for Dogs
Hypercalcemia in a dog that is exhibiting signs of chronic ingestion of maxacalcitol ointment is an uncommon but important example of electrolyte disturbance in dogs. Hypervitaminosis D has been reported to occur secondarily to accidental ingestion of antipsoriatic ointments that contain vitamin D analogues, such as calcipotriol and tacalcitol. Reduced renal excretion of PTH due to chronic kidney disease may worsen the risk of hypercalcemia after ingestion of ointment by your canine patient.
Because these ointments are considered safe in humans, there is a tendency to handle these drugs less cautiously than oral medications which can be life-threatening for dogs. The best treatment option is to use especial care when prescribing topical medications and ensure that the animal in question is not ingesting topical medications. You can take special precautions by throwing the medications away safely, and by making sure that your pets are not licking your skin after topical application.
Bromethalin Poison Treatment
Bromethalin is a CNS toxin that is present in several different rodenticides and it is only increasing in use. Bromethalin has no antidote and accumulates in fatty tissue – therefore intravenous lipid emulsions are currently being used to treat acute systemic toxicities. Administering intravenous lipid emulsions can reduce serum bromethalin levels by up to 75%. Lipid emulsions can also reduce enterohepatic recirculation and increase excretion of bromethalin in your canine patients.
It is imperative that veterinarians and pet owners alike are aware of the less common intoxications that may occur in small animals. Increasing awareness can speed up the time it takes to diagnose and treat animals, which could save the lives of small animals.
Written in collaboration with Samantha Kenik, Pharm.D., Veterinary Compounding Pharmacist and Drew Olson, DVM, Veterinary Division National Director